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Chinese Fir Plantation eco-system field scientific observation and research station in Hunan Province is located in Suxikou Village, Guangping town, Huaihua City, Hunan Province, China. Its geographical coordinates are 26° 47 ' 23.844 "N, 109° 35' 24.470" E, 295.7m above sea level. The flux tower built in the second catchments of the station , whose base geographic coordinates are 26 °47 '8.228 "N, 109 ° 35' 30.292" E, 313.5m above sea level.


a typical middle subtropical humid monsoon climate with 17.1℃, 39.1℃and -5.7℃ of the annual mean, extreme maximum and minimum air temperature respectively, 87% of annual average relative humidity and 1275.3mm of annual average precipitation .

Vegetation and soil

Vegetation is Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata) plantation. Understory vegetation is less, mainly shrubs including with Maesa japonica, Eurya jajponica, Smilax china, Ilex purpurea and Stenloma chusanum, the mainly herbs consistent of Woodwardia japonica, Dicranopteris linearis and Cyclosorus parasiticus. Soil type is the mountain yellow soil with deeply weathering degree and above 80cm thickness of soil layer

Observation system

The eddy correlation system, including a three dimensional sonic anemometer (CSAT3, Campbell, USA) and a open CO2/H2O infrared analyzer (Li 7500, Li-cor, USA) with 10Hz for sampling frequency and 30min for flux average time, is installed in the extension arm(points to the North alert East, 10 degree at the top of the 32.5m observation tower.

Principal Investigator

Wenhua Xiang


Station director

Wenhua Xiang          Professor

Assistant station director



Zhonghui Zhao           Assoc. Professor

Xiangwen Deng          Professor

Zhihong Huang           Assoc. Professor

Meifang Zhao              Lecturer




Public sector special project of MST

Coupling observation, simulation and application technology of Carbon, nitrogen and water in forest eco-system.        (DL Tian    2011-2015)

National forestry public industry special

Study on forest structure and ecological function of secondary broad-leaved forest in subtropical.       ( WH Xiang    2013-2015)

The national "948"project

Study on the cooperative technology in detection and simulation of forest methane.       (Y Shen     2013-2015)


Published Papers

[1]  Yelin Zeng, Wenhua Xiang*, Xiangwen Deng, Xi Fang, Cong Liu, Changhui Peng. 2014. Soil N forms and gross transformation rates in Chinese subtropical forests dominated by different tree species. Plant and Soil, 384: 231-242
[2]  Cong Liu, Wenhua Xiang*, Pifeng Lei, Xiangwen Deng, Dalun Tian, Xi Fang, Changhui Peng. 2014. Standing fine root mass and production in four Chinese subtropical forests along succession and species diversity gradient. Plant and Soil, 376: 445-459
[3]  Li Wen, Pifeng Lei, Wenhua Xiang, Wende Yan, Shuguang Liu. 2014. Soil microbial biomass carbon and nitrogen in pure and mixed stands of Pinus massoniana and Cinnamomum camphora differing in stand age. Forest Ecology and Management, 328: 150-158
[4]  Xuding Wen, Zhonghui Zhao, Xiangwen Deng, Wenhua Xiang, Dalun Tian, Wende Yan, Xiaolu Zhou, Changhui Peng. 2014. Applying an artificial neural network to simulate and predict Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata) plantation carbon flux in subtropical China. Ecological Modelling, 294: 19-26
[5]  Xiangwen Deng, Liyun Zhang, Pifeng Lei, Wenhua Xiang, Wende Yan. 2014. Variations of wood basic density with tree age and social classes in the axial direction within Pinus massoniana stems in Southern China. Annals of Forest Science, 71: 505-516
[6]  Yiping Wu, Dongsheng Cheng, Wende Yan, Shuguang Liu, Wenhua Xiang, Ji Chen, Yueming Hu. Diagnosing climate change and hydrological responses in the past decades for a minimally-disturbed headwater basin in South China. Water Resources Management, 28(12): 4385-4400
[7]  Jie Tong, Wenhua Xiang*, Pifeng Lei, Jia Liu, Dalun Tian, Xiangwen Deng, Changhui Peng. 2014. Prediction of tree species composition in fine root mixed samples using near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy. Plant Biosystems, DOI: 10.1080/11263504.2014.976291 (online)
[8]  Wenhua Xiang*, Wei Wu, Jie Tong, Xiangwen Deng, Dalun Tian, Lei Zhang, Cong Liu, Changhui Peng. 2013. Differences in fine root traits between early and late successional tree species in a Chinese subtropical forest. Forestry, 86(3): 343-351
[9]  Meifang Zhao, Wenhua Xiang*, Dalun Tian, Xiangwen Deng, Zhihong Huang, Xiaolu Zhou, Changhui Peng. 2013. Effects of increased nitrogen deposition and rotation length on long-term productivity of Cunninghamia lanceolata plantation in southern China. PLoS ONE, 8(2): e55367.doi:101371/journal.pone.0055376
[10]  Meifang Zhao, Wenhua Xiang*, Xiangwen Deng, Dalun Tian, Zhihong Huang, Xiaolu Zhou, Guirui Yu, Honglin He, Changhui Peng. 2013. Application of TRIPLEX model for predicting Cunninghamia lanceolata and Pinus massoniana forest stand production in Hunan
[11] Wenhua Xiang*, Shaohui Liu, Xiangdong Lei, Shane C. Frank, Dalun Tian, Guangjun Wang, Xiangwen Deng. 2013. Secondary forest floristic composition, structure, and spatial pattern in subtropical China. Journal of Forest Research, 18(1): 111-120
[12]  Meifang Zhao, Changhui Peng, Wenhua Xiang, Xiangwen Deng, Dalun Tian, Xiaolu Zhou, Guirui Yu, Honglin He, Zhonghui Zhao. 2013. Plant phenological modeling and its application in global climate change research: overview and future challenges. Environmental Reviews, 21(1): 1–14
[13]  Jie Tong, Wenhua Xiang*, Cong Liu, Pifeng Lei, Dalun Tian, Xiangwen Deng, Changhui Peng. 2012. Tree species effects on fine root decomposition and nitrogen release in subtropical forests in southern China. Plant Ecology and Diversity, 5(3): 323-331
[14]  Liyun Zhang, Xiangwen Deng, Xiangdong Lei, Wenhua Xiang, Changhui Peng, Pifeng Lei, Wende Yan. 2012. Determining stem biomass of Pinus massoniana L. through variations in basic density. Forestry, 85(5): 601-609
[15]  Zelin Liu, Changhui Peng, Wenhua Xiang, Xiangwen Deng, Dalun Tian, Meifang Zhao, Guirui Yu. 2012. Simulations of runoff and evapotranspiration in Chinese fir plantation ecosystems using artificial neural networks. Ecological Modelling, 226: 71–76
[16]  Wenhua Xiang*, Shaohui Liu, Xiangwen Deng, Aihua Shen, Xiangdong Lei, Dalun Tian, Meifang Zhao, Changhui Peng. 2011. General allometric equations and biomass allocation of Pinus massoniana trees on a regional scale in southern China. Ecological Research, 26: 697–711
[17]  Dalun Tian, Wenhua Xiang, Xiaoyong Chen, Wende Yan, Xi Fang, Wenxing Kang, Xiangwen Deng, Changhui Peng, Yuanying Peng. 2011. A long-term evaluation of biomass production in first and second rotations of Chinese fir plantations at the same site. Forestry, 84(4): 411-418
[18]  Liu Zelin, Peng Changhui, Xiang Wenhua, Tian Dalun, Deng Xiangwen, Zhao Meifang. 2010.  Application of artificial neural networks in global climate change and ecological research: An overview. Chinese Science Bulletin, 55(34): 3853–3863
[19]  Zhonghui Zhao, Liping Zhang, Wenxing Kang, et al. 2011. Characteristics of CO2 flux in a Chinese fir plantation ecosystem in Huitong County, Hunan Province. Scientia Silvae Sinicae. 47(11):6-12.
[20]  Xiang Lu, Wenhua Xiang *, Cong Liu. 2012. Storage and distribution of soil organic carbon and nitrogen in four subtropical forests in central southern China. Journal of Soil and Water Conservation. 26(3):169-173.

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