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Flux tower locates at Caoshang of Zhongliang Mountain, Beibei District, Chongqing ( 29°47′15″N,106°26′33″E,asl 591m ), Chongqing Jinfo Mountain Karst Ecosystem National Observation and Research Station.


The subtropical humid monsoon climate, warm winter and hot summer, early spring and late autumn, long summer and short winter. High temperatures and drought appear in August, west China autumn rains last from September to October. The average annual temperature is 18.3 ℃, the average temperature of the hottest month (July) is 28.6 ℃, and the average temperature of the coldest month (January) is 7.7 ℃. The annual precipitation is 1000~1300 mm, and the annual frost-free period is 355 days.

Vegetation and soil

The area where the station is located is Zhongliang Mountains in the west of Chongqing, which has a typical subtropical secondary evergreen broadleave-coniferous mixed forest-shrub (slope) system as well as an agro-ecosystem at the slope and trough bottom. Because of the lack of soil, water and alkaline karst environment, the plant species characteristics near the Caoshang station are drought tolerance, lithophyte and calcium liking.

The vegetation types on the underlying surface of flux tower were subtropical secondary evergreen broad-leaved and coniferous mixed forests and shrubs, and the pines community composition included camphor, robinia pseudoacacia, privet and masson; The shrubs included berchemia polyphylla, viburnum, pyracantha and vitex negundo.The soil type in the carbonate zone is yellow soil, while the non-carbonate zone is non-zonal purple soil.Soil layer has uneven thickness, containing different degrees of calcium carbonate. The average PH of soil is 4.17-6.68, showing the typical shallow and discontinuous distribution characteristics, and there are contiguous stone clusters without soil distribution. The soil thickness of yellow soil is generally 10-50 cm, and that of non-zonal purple soil is 50-100 cm.

Observation system

Open circuit: CSAT3B three-dimensional ultrasonic anemometer (Campbell,USA) and Li7500RS CO2/H2O (Li-cor,USA) infrared gas analyzer

Closed circuit: CSAT3A three-dimensional ultrasonic anemometer (Campbell,USA) and EC155 CO2/H2O (Campbell,USA) infrared gas analyzer

Flux tower height: 10m, ultrasonic anemometer and infrared gas analyzer installation height: 5m, air temperature and humidity sensor installation height: 5m/10m, four component radiation sensor installation height: 5m, soil temperature and humidity sensor installation depth: 2cm, 5cm, 10cm, 20cm, 40cm, 60cm and 80cm.The data sampling frequency: 10Hz, the average flux time: 30min.

Principal Investigator

Mingguo Ma


Station director

Mingguo Ma

Data Analysis

Xuguang Tang


Debing Kong

Zhi Ding



Observation and Simulation of Complex Surface Land Surface Processes in Southwest China.   (Mingguo Ma     2019-2023)

Key processes of karst carbon cycle and karst carbon sink effect in karst basin.   (Mingguo Ma     2023-2026)



Published Papers

[1] Tang, Xuguang; Zhou, Yanlian; Li, Hengpeng, Yao, Li, Ding, Zhi, Ma, Mingguo. Remotely monitoring ecosystem respiration from various grasslands along a large-scale east-west transect across northern China. Carbon Balance and Management,2020, 15(1): 6.

[2] Ge Zhongxi, Huang Jing, Wang Xufeng, Zhao Yinjun, Tang Xuguang, Zhou Yun, Lai Peiyu, Hao Binfei, Ma Mingguo. Using remote sensing to identify the peak of the growing season at globally-distributed flux sites: A comparison of models, sensors, and biomes. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 2021, 307(108489): 1-12.

[3] Huang Jing, Ge Zhongxi, Huang Yuqing,Tang Xuguang, Shi Zhan, Lai Peiyu, Song Zengjing, Hao Binfei, Yang Hong, Ma Mingguo. Climate change and ecological engineering jointly induced vegetation greening in global karst regions from 2001 to 2020. Plant and Soil, 2022, 475: 193-212.

[4] Lisheng Song, Yan Li, Yanghang Ren, Xiuchen Wu , Bo Guo1, Xuguang Tang, Weiyu Shi, Mingguo Ma, Xujun Han, Long Zhao. Divergent vegetation responses to extreme spring 1 and summer droughts in Southwestern China. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 2019, 279, 107703: 1-9.



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