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The Sanjiang Mire Wetland Experimental Station focuses on the monitoring and research of the ecological processes of mire wetland.The station affiliates with Northeast Insititute of Geography and Agroecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences. It locates in the southeast of Honghe farm of Jiansanjiang Farming Bureau, Tongjiang, Heilongjiang province. Its Geographic coordinates is 47 ° 35'05.82 "N, 133 ° 30'19.99" E, and altitude is 55m. In the station, there is a flux tower, which located at 47°35′16.98″N,133°29′42.35″E, setted in the Comprehensive Observation Field. The altitude of the tower foundation is 55m, and the height of the tower is 3 m. The vegetation under the tower is mainly typical mire vegetation in middle temperature zones. The fluxes would represent the values in the mire ecosystem distributing in the whole Sanjiang Plain.


The Sanjiang Mire Wetland Experimental Station belongs to a typical temperate continental monsoon climate in the seasonal frozen zone, with dry wind in spring, hot climate and plenty rain in summer, and low temperature in winter. The mean annual temperature is 2.0 °C, the extreme maximum temperature is 39.9 °C, the extreme minimum temperature is -41°C, the mean annual relative humidity is 73 %, the mean annual precipitation is 663 mm, the mean annual day-length is 2303h 35m, and the frost-free period is 161 d. There is no abnormal climate in the whole region.

Vegetation and soil

The main vegetation types in wetlands in the Sanjiang Plain include marsh and swamp meadow. In the marsh, the dominant plant species include Carex appendiculata, Deyeuxia angustifolia, Carex meyeriana, Carex lasiocarpa, Phragmites australis, Carex pseudocuraica, and Glyceria spiculosa, and the main companion species include Cicuta virosa, Spiraea salicifolia, Sanguisorba parviflora, Caltha palustris, Lysimachia davurica, Comarum palustre, Menyanthes trifoliata, Equisetum fluviatile, Iris laevigata, Lysimachia thyrsiflora, Carex limosa, and Stachys baicalensis. In the swamp meadow, the dominant plant species include Aluns cremastogyne, D. angustifolia, Deyeuxia langsdorffii, Calamagrostis epigeios, P. australis, C. appendiculata, C. schmidtii, C. lasiocarpa, B. fruticosa, and Salix rosmarinifolia, and the main companion species include S. salicifolia, Vicia cracca, Filipendula palmate, Galium verum, S. baicalensis, Lythrum salicaria, L. davurica, C. palustris, and Sanguisorba parviflora.

The vegetation type of the underlying surface at the flux tower is marsh, with the dominant species of C. lasiocarpa, and the main companion species of Carex pseudocuraica, G. spiculosa, D. angustifolia, C. limosa, L. thyrsiflora, Galium boreale, Eriophorum russeolum, I. laevigata, M. trifoliate, E. fluviatile, and C. palustre.The vegetation canopy height of the underlying surface at the flux tower is 0.8 ~ 1.2 m.The soil type is gley mire soil with a soil depth of more than 300 cm.

The soil organic matter, total nitrogen and total phosphors contents of the surface layer are 626.13 g•kg-1, 17.66 g•kg-1 and 0.86 g•kg-1, respectively, corresponding to a C:N ratio of 35.45. The components of soil particles are 16% clay, 28% silt, and 56% sand. The soil bulk density is 0.17 g•cm-3, and the pH value is 5.02.

Observation system

 Instruments relevant include 2 parts:Three-dimensional ultrasonic anemometer (CSAT-3, USA) and the fast greenhouse gas analyzer (LGR, USA).The height of the flux mast is 3 m. The height of ultrasonic anemometer and thermohygrometer is 2.5m.

Principal Investigator

Changchun Song






Station director

Guo Yuedong


Sun Li

Gong Chao



The long-term observation on CO2 and CH4 flux between natural wetland ecosystem and the atmosphere in the Sanjiang Plain of northeast China was conducted. The temporal variation of CO2 and CH4 flux and the controlling environmental factors were investigated. The seasonal and annual accumulation rates of carbon were quantitatively evaluated. There are 3 research papers published since the installation of the EC system.

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